Apolysaccharide extract from the fruiting body of Phellinus linteus reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased expression of anti-inflammtory cytokines, resulting in subsidence of the autoimmune response in the joints of mice1. Fungal polysaccharides have also been shown to reduce inflammation and have a positive modulating effect on plasma cytokine levels in experimentally induced arthritis in rats, while triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum exhibit strong anti-inflammatory action2-4.
While mushroom polysaccharides, such as those from P. linteus, are excellent for promoting a shift away from the Th2 cytokine profile characteristic of RA, the stronger anti-inflammatory properties of triterpene-rich G. lucidum extracts are better during more active phases.
1. Oral administration of proteoglycan isolated from Phellinus linteus in the prevention and treatment of collagen-induced arthritis in mice. Kim GY, Kim SH, Hwang SY, Kim HY, Park YM, Park SK, Lee MK, Lee SH, Lee TH, Lee JD. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003;26(6):823–831.
2. Study of new ways of supplementary and combinatory therapy of rheumatoid arthritis with immunomodulators. Glucomannan and Imunoglukán in adjuvant arthritis. Bauerová K, Paulovicová E, Mihalová D, Svík K, Ponist S. Toxicol Ind Health. 2009;25(4-5):329–335.
3. Anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour-promoting effects of triterpene acids and sterols from the fungus Ganoderma lucidum. Akihisa T, Nakamura Y, Tagata M, Tokuda H, Yasukawa K, Uchiyama E, Suzuki T, Kimura Y. Chem Biodivers. 2007;4(2):224–231.
4. Suppression of the inflammatory response by triterpenes isolated from the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Dudhgaonkar S, Thyagarajan A, Sliva D. Int Immunopharmacol. 2009;9(11):1272–1280.