PSK increased median duration for complete remission and survival when given alongside mercaptopurine chemotherapy after remission had been induced by combination therapy without side effects in one trial and there was a trend to longer survival in a second1,2;. Nanba et al also reported reductions in CD4+ (26%) and IL-2 (17%) in 3 leukaemia cases with a combination of Maitake (Grifola frondosa) D-fraction and G.frondosa fruiting body3.
In vitro experiments with polysaccharide extracts from several mushrooms, including Agaricus subrufescens, Ganoderma lucidum, Poria cocos, Trametes versicolor and Ophiocordyceps sinensis show activity against human leukaemia cell lines through induction of apoptosis, as do triterpenes from G. lucidum and Antrodia camphorata4-14, while in vivo and in vitro studies with Agaricus subrufescens polysaccharide extracts showed tumour-selective growth inhibitory activity against human leukaemia cells15.
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9. Primary mechanism of apoptosis induction in a leukaemia cell line by fraction FA-2-b-ss prepared from the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill. Gao L, Sun Y, Chen C, Xi Y, Wang J, Wang Z. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2007;40(11):1545-55.
10. Cordyceps sinensis mycelium extract induces human premyelocytic leukaemia cell apoptosis through mitochondrion pathway. Zhang QX, Wu JY. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2007;232(1):52-7.
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12. Ganoderma lucidum causes apoptosis in leukaemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma cells. Müller CI, Kumagai T, O’Kelly J, Seeram NP, Heber D, Koeffler HP. Leuk Res. 2006;30(7):841-8.
13. Lucidenic acid B induces apoptosis in human leukaemia cells via a mitochondria-mediated pathway. Hsu CL, Yu YS, Yen GC. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56(11):3973-80.
14. Compound MMH01 possesses toxicity against human leukaemia and pancreatic cancer cells. Chen YJ, Chou CJ, Chang TT. Toxicol in vitro. 2009;23(3):418-24.
15. Inhibitory effects of Agaricus blazei extracts on human myeloid leukaemia cells. Kim CF, Jiang JJ, Leung KN, Fung KP, Lau CB. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;122(2):320-6.