Leukaemia

PSK increased median duration for complete remission and survival when given alongside mercaptopurine chemotherapy after remission had been induced by combination therapy without side effects in one trial and there was a trend to longer survival in a second1,2;. Nanba et al also reported reductions in CD4+ (26%) and IL-2 (17%) in 3 leukaemia cases with a combination of Maitake (Grifola frondosa) D-fraction and G.frondosa fruiting body3.

In vitro experiments with polysaccharide extracts from several mushrooms, including Agaricus subrufescens, Ganoderma lucidum, Poria cocos, Trametes versicolor and Ophiocordyceps sinensis show activity against human leukaemia cell lines through induction of apoptosis, as do triterpenes from G. lucidum and Antrodia camphorata4-14, while in vivo and in vitro studies with Agaricus subrufescens polysaccharide extracts showed tumour-selective growth inhibitory activity against human leukaemia cells15.

 

REFERENCES

1. Chemoimmunotherapy with Krestin in acute leukemia. Nagao T, Komatsuda M, Yamauchi K, Nozaki H, Watanabe K, Arimori S.Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine 1981;
6(2):141-6.

2. A randomized trial of chemoimmunotherapy of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia in adults using a protein-bound polysaccharide preparation. Ohno R, Yamada K, Masaoka T, Ohshima T, Amaki I, Hirota Y, et al. Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy 1984;18:149-54.

3. Can Maitake MD-fraction aid cancer patients? Kodama N, Komuta K, Nanba H. Alt Med Rev.  2002;7(3):236.

4. Ganoderma lucidum causes apoptosis in leukaemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma cells. Müller CI, Kumagai T, O’Kelly J, Seeram NP, Heber D, Koeffler HP. Leuk Res. 2006;30(7):841-8.

5. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides can induce human monocytic leukaemia cells into dendritic cells with immunostimulatory function. Chan WK, Cheung CC, Law HK, Lau YL, Chan GC. J Hematol Oncol. 2008;1:9.

6. Antiproliferative and differentiating effects of polysaccharide fraction from fu-ling (Poria cocos) on human leukemic U937 and HL-60 cells. Chen YY, Chang HM. Food Chem Toxicol.
2004;42(5):759-69.

7. Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extract attenuates growth of human leukaemia xenografts and induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. Ho CY, Kim CF, Leung KN, Fung KP, Tse TF, Chan H, Lau CB. Oncol Rep. 2006;16(3):609-16.

8. Cytotoxic activities of Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extract on human leukaemia and lymphoma cells by induction of apoptosis. Lau CB, Ho CY, Kim CF, Leung KN, Fung KP, Tse TF, Chan HH, Chow MS. Life Sci. 2004;75(7):797-808.

9. Primary mechanism of apoptosis induction in a leukaemia cell line by fraction FA-2-b-ss prepared from the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill. Gao L, Sun Y, Chen C, Xi Y, Wang J, Wang Z. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2007;40(11):1545-55.

10. Cordyceps sinensis mycelium extract induces human premyelocytic leukaemia cell apoptosis through mitochondrion pathway. Zhang QX, Wu JY. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2007;232(1):52-7.

11. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis on the proliferation and differentiation of human leukemic U937 cells. Chen YJ, Shiao MS, Lee SS, Wang SY. Life Sci. 1997;60(25):2349-59.

12. Ganoderma lucidum causes apoptosis in leukaemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma cells. Müller CI, Kumagai T, O’Kelly J, Seeram NP, Heber D, Koeffler HP. Leuk Res. 2006;30(7):841-8.

13. Lucidenic acid B induces apoptosis in human leukaemia cells via a mitochondria-mediated pathway. Hsu CL, Yu YS, Yen GC. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56(11):3973-80.

14. Compound MMH01 possesses toxicity against human leukaemia and pancreatic cancer cells. Chen YJ, Chou CJ, Chang TT. Toxicol in vitro. 2009;23(3):418-24.

15. Inhibitory effects of Agaricus blazei extracts on human myeloid leukaemia cells. Kim CF, Jiang JJ, Leung KN, Fung KP, Lau CB. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;122(2):320-6.